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Perşembe, 07 Eylül 2006
SIMPLE PAST TENSE


1.1 PAST FORM OF “BE”

POSITIVE SENTENCE NEGATIVE SENTENCE QUESTION SENTENCES
I
He
She was at home last night
It
I
He
She wasn’t at home last night
It
I
he
Was she at home last night?
it
We
You were at home last night.
They
We
You weren’t at home last night.
They
we
Were you at home last night?
they



• Kate is here today, but she wasn’t here yesterday.
• I was in Canada last year.
• Were you in Istanbul five years ago?
• It is cold this week, but it was sunny last week.
• Where were you last Sunday?
• How was your exam?


1.2 FORM OF THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

a) Affirmative ( Positive) Sentences

I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They
played football yesterday


studied English this morning
went to the cinema last night


Simple Past Tense olumlu cümlelerininde,özneden sonra V2 ( Fiillerin 2. halleri) kullanılır.
• I watched TV last night.
• The snow stopped a few minutes ago. Now the weather is nice.
• Linda came home very late last night.
• Last year I traveled to Japan.
• Hasan studied hard all year. He passed all his exams last week.
• Sally called the police yesterday because someone stole her car while she was at the supermarket.


b) Negative Sentences

You
He
She
It
We
You
They


did not

didn’t

play football yesterday.
study english this morning.
go to the cinema last night.

Simple Past Tense olumsuz cümlelerinde, özneden sonra didn’t yardımcı fiili ve fiillerin yalın halleri( V1) kullanılır. V2 sadece olumlu cümlelerde kullanılır.

• I didn’t go to a movie last night. I stayed at home.
• Nick didn’t come to school yesterday.
• We didn’t have breakfast this morning.
• I went to a movie yesterday but I didn’t enjoy it.
• It didn’t rain yesterday.


c) Negative Sentences

Didyou
he
she
it
we
you
they
play football yesterday.
study english this morning.
go to the cinema last night.



Soru cümleleri yaparken , did yardımcı fiili özneden önce (cümle başında) kullanılır. Fiil yalın halde (V1) kullanılır.

• Did you sleep well last night?
• Did you see the postman this morning?
• Did Mary have a good time at the party yesterday?
• Did you make your own dinner last night.
• Did they understand the question?
• Did the children feed the birds in the park yesterday morning?

1.3 SPELLING OF -ED
END OF VERB ------- -ED FORM


RULE 1: A consonant + -e ----------- ADD -d
dance ----------- danced
erase ----------- erased
place ----------- placed

RULE 2: One vowel + One consonant ----------- Double the consonant and ADD – ed
plan ----------- planned
stop ------------ stopped


NOTE: Do not double w,and x
snow --------- snowed
fix --------- fixed


RULE 3: Two vowels + One Consonant ---------- ADD -ed ; do not double the consonant
rain --------- rained
need --------- needed

RULE 4: Two consonants -------- ADD –ed ; do not double the consonant
help--------- helped
add ------ added

RULE 5: Consonant + -y---------CHANGE –y TO –i, ADD –ed
Worry --------- worried
Reply --------- replied

RULE 6: Vowel + -y -------- ADD –ed; DO NOT CHANGE -y TO -i
play -------- played
stay --------- stayed


1.4 IRREGULAR VERBS

TAMAMLANACAK……………………………

1.5 USES OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

a) Completed Action In The past

Simple past tense bir eylemin geçmişte bilinen (specific) bir zamanda yapılıp, tamamlandığını gösterir. Simple Past Tense en çok bu amaç için kullanılır.

• I saw a movie yesterday.
• I didn’t go to work last Friday.
• Last year, I traveled to China.
• The World War II ended in 1945.
• She washed the dishes this morning.

b) A series of Completed Actions

Simple Past Tense geçmişte yapılmış bir dizi, ardışık eylemden bahsederken kullanılır.
• I finished work, went home, had a shower and went to bed early.
• He arrived from the airport at 9:00,checked into the hotel at 10:00, and met the others at 11:00.

c) Single Duration
Simple past tense geçmişte başlayıp ve bitmiş olan bir eylemin ne kadar süre ile yapıldığından bahsederken kullanılır. Eylemlerin şimdiki zamanda bir geçerliliği kalmamıştır.

• I lived in Istanbul for 5 years, from 1990 to 1995. ( I don’t live there anymore)
• Jane studied Chinese for 3 years.
• We talked on the phone for 30 minutes.
• How long did they wait for the bus?

d) Habits in the past
Simple past tense geçmişte düzenli olarak yapılan ,fakat artık geçerli olmayan eylem ve davranışlardan bahsederken kullanılır. Bu kullanım “ used to “ ile aynı anlamdadır. Bu anlatımlarda cümlelerde genellikle "often," "usually," "never," "...when I was a child" or "...when I was younger" gibi zarf yapıları yer alır..


• My father took me to the Luna park every Sunday.
• He played the piano whenever he was at home.
• He usually worked at a restaurant after school.



1.6 “BEFORE” and “AFTER” IN TIME CLAUSES

“Clause” içinde bir özne ve yüklemi bulunan bir cümle ya da cümlecik yapısıdır. Bazı clause ‘lar bütün olarak bir anlam içeren, bir tam cümle yapısındadır. Bunlara main clauses ( temel cümle) adı verilir. Örneğin;

• “I ate a sandwich.” = a main clause
• “She played tennis” = a main clause

Bazı clause’ lar after, before ve when gibi zaman zarfları (adverbs) ile başlarlar. Bu clause’ lar temel cümle değildirler ve tek başlarına bir anlam taşımazlar ; cümle yapısı içinde zaman referansı vermek amacı ile kullanılırlar. Bu clause’ lara time clauses (zaman bildiren yan cümle) adı verilir. Örneğin;

• “ before I went to school” = a time clause
• “after she finished her homework” = a time clause

Daha önce de belirtildiği gibi, zaman cümlecikleri ( time clause) tek başlarına tam bir cümle olmayıp,bir anlam taşımazlar ve sonuç olaral temel cümle( main clause) ile birlikte kullanılırlar. Bir zaman cümleciği (time clause), temel cümlenin ( main clause) önünde ya da arkasında kullanılabilir. Bu kullanımlar anlam farkına yol açmaz.


• I ate a sandwich before I went to school.

ya da,

• Before I went to school, I ate a sandwich.


• She played tennis after she finished her homework

ya da,

• After she finished her homework, she played tennis.


Time clause (zaman cümleciği), temel cümlenin ( main clause) önünde kullanıldığında, temel cümleden önce virgül kullanılır.

• After the children got home from school, they watched TV.
• Before we entered the cinema, we bought the tickets.
• I cleaned my room before my mother came home.
• After Sally ate dinner, she went to the library,
• Sally went to the library after she ate dinner.

1.7 “WHEN” IN TIME CLAUSES
Bazı zaman cümlecikleri (time clauses) WHEN ile başlarlar.

• When I was a child, I lived with my grandparents.
• I lived with my grandparents when I was a child.
• When I heard a strange sound, I turned on the lights.
• I turned on the lights when I heard a strange noise.

Her iki cümleciğin de ( time clause and main clause) fiilleri simple past ise, when clause’ daki eylem once olmuş demektir. Örneğin:

• When the phone rang, I answered it.

First :the phone phone rang
Second: I answered it

• The children went their homes when the rain started..

First: The rain started
Second: the children went their homes

 
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