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Perşembe, 07 Eylül 2006

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


1.1 Form Of Present Perfect Tense

a) Affirmative (Positive) Sentences
Have been/ Has been + VING

 

HE
SHE
IT
 
has been eating hamburger

has been writting the letter
  
I
YOU
WE
THEY
have been eating hamburger

have been writting the letter


In the positive sentence form of the Present Perfect Continuous Tense, helping verbs have been / has been + VING are used after the subject.

• I have been watching TV since seven o’clock.
• They have been playing football since morning.
• Jim has been eating lunch for two hours.
• I have been living in this city for 20 years.
• My father has been teaching for 30 years.
• It has been snowing all day. I wonder when it will stop.


b) Negative Sentences

 

HE
SHE
IT
has not been eating hamburger

hasn’t been writting the letter
  
I
YOU
WE
THEY
have not been eating hamburger

haven’t been writting the letter
 



In the negative form of Present Perfect Continuous Tense, not is simply added to the sentence after the helping verbs has been / have been.


• Mary hasn’t been working since afternoon.
• They haven’t been living here since 1975.


c) Question Sentences

 

Has he
she
it
been eating hamburger?

been writting the letter?
   
Have we
you
they
been eating hamburger?

been writting the letter?


In question sentences, the helping verbs have / has are used in the beginning of the sentences.
BEEN + VING is used after the subject.

• Have you been running for two hours?
• How long have you been working in this company?
• Has she been studying?
• What has your mother been doing since morning?


1.2 Use Of Present Perfect Continuous Tense

a) The Present Perfect Continuous Tense indicates the duration of an activity that began in the past and continues to the present. When the tense has this meaning, it is used with time words such as since, for, all morning, all day, all week, etc.

• I have been living in Ankara for 10 years.
• It has been raining all day.
• I have been working on this project for more than a year.
• The children have been playing in the garden since morning.
• How long has she been driving? She looks tired.


b) When the present perfect continuous tense is used without any specific mention of time, it indicates a general activity in progress recently, lately.

• My wife has been thinking about changing her car.
• The students have been studying hard. The final exams start next week.
• Tom’s clothes look very dirty. He has been painting the house.



1.3 Present Continuous Vs. Present Perfect Continuous

Present Continuous tense expresses an activity happening at the moment of speaking. It never indicates the duration activity.

CORRECT: I am running now.
CORRECT : She is sleeping now.
INCORRECT: I am running for 2 hours.
INCORRECT: She is sleeping since 8:00 o’clock

Present perfect tense,on the other hand, is used to express duration of an activity happening . It mostly answers the question HOW OFTEN?

• I have been running for two hours. I am very tired now.
• She has been sleeping since 8:00. She worked hard yesterday

1.4 Present Perfect Continuous Vs. Present Perfect

While the present perfect simple is used to express completed actions and their results at present, present perfect continuous tense is most commonly used to indicate the duration of an activity. In other words, if it is important to express that the activity is completed, Present Perfect Simple is used; if it is important to express the duration and the activity itself, Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used.

• I have cleaned the room. It’s clear now.
• I have been cleaning the room since morning.
• I have read 50 pages of this novel. It’s very exciting.
• I have been reading this novel for a week. It’s very exciting.

With certain verbs such as live, work, and teach, there is little or no difference in meaning between the two tenses when since or for is used


• I have lived here since 1990. or I have ben living here since 1990.
• She has worked at the same company for five years. / She has been working at the same company for five years.


Be careful about the non-progressive verbs, which cannot be used in continuous tenses.

CORRECT : I have known Jim for ten years.
INCORRECT : I have been knowing Jim for ten years.

Son Güncelleme ( Pazartesi, 18 Aralık 2006 )
 
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