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Perşembe, 30 Ekim 2014
 
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Perşembe, 07 Eylül 2006
GİRİŞ : RELATIVE CLAUSES
Sıfat cümlecikleri (Relative clauses) aynı ad öbeğine (noun phrase) sahip iki basit cümleyi birleştirmek için kullanlırlar. Sıfat cümlecikleri bulundukları cümlede sıfat görevi yaparlar;cümlede isimleri nitelemek için kullanlırlar. Sıfat cümlecikleri niteleme yapacakları cümleye ilgi zamirleri (relative pronouns) ile bağlanırlar.

Genellikle Türk öğrencilerin en zorlandığı ya da çekindikleri konulardan biri Adjective Clause'lardır. Ancak gramer yapılarını ezberlemeye başlamadan önce , ya da tüm ayrıntıların detaylarında boğulmadan önce sıfat cümleciklerinin neden ve nerede kullanıldıklarını temel olarak görelim:

a) The Film was good. Burada "Film" ismi "Good" sıfatı ile basitçe nitelenmektedir.
b) The film which I watched last night was good. Burada yine "The Film" ismi nitelenmektedir ve " which I watched last night (dün akşam izledğim film)" sıfat cümlesi ile ayrıca nitelenmektedir. Bu cümleden anladığımız: Bu filmi dün izledim ve film iyiydi.
Dün akşam izledğim film iyiydi.


1- ZAMİRLER
• Who (For people as subject)
• Who (m) (For people as object)
• Which (For things or animals)
• That (For people, things and animals)
• Whose (Possessions)

2- RELATIVE ADVERBS
• Where (Place)
• When (time)
• Why (reason)
 
2- ÖZNE'Yİ NİTELEYEN SIFAT TÜMLEÇLERİ
1. (a) The boy is happy. He passed the exam.
(b) The boy who passed the exam is happy.
(c) The boy that passed the exam is happy.

2. (a) I stayed at a hotel. It was in the center of the city.
(b) I stayed at a hotel which was in the center of the city.
(c) I stayed at a hotel that was in the center of the city.

3. (a) The teacher is in the classroom. He teaches us English.
(b) The teacher who teaches us English is in the classroom.
(c) The teacher that teaches us English is in the classroom

4. (a) The car belongs to my father. It is on the left.
(b) The car which is on the left belongs to my father.
(c) The car that is on the left belongs to my father.


örneklerin, (b) ve (c) cümlelerindeki koyu yazılı bölümler sıfat cümleciklerini (relative clause) göstermekte olup, anlamları aynıdır
Who, which ve that ilgi zamirleri ( relative pronouns) ,sıfat cümleciklerinde ÖZNE konumundadırlar.
3- NESNEYİ NİTELEYEN SIFAT TÜMLEÇLERİ

1. (a) The film was good. I watched it last night.
(b) The film which I watched last night was good.
(c) The film that I watched last night was good.
(d) The film  I watched last night was good.

2. (a) The teacher liked the term paper. I gave it last week.
(b) The teacher liked term paper which I gave last week.
(c) The teacher liked term paper that I gave last week.
(d) The teacher liked term paper  I gave last week.

3. (a) The woman is a doctor. I met her yesterday.
(b) The woman who (m) I met yesterday is a doctor.
(c) The woman that I met yesterday is a doctor.
(d) The woman  I met yesterday is a doctor.

4. (a) The apples were too sour. We bought them from the market.
(b) The apples which we bought from the market were too sour.
(c) The apples that we bought from the market were too sour
(d) The apples  we bought from the market were too sour

Kutudaki örneklerin, (b), (c) ve (d) cümlelerindeki koyu yazılı bölümler sıfat cümleciklerini (relative clause) göstermekte olup, anlamları aynıdır
Who(m), which ve that ilgi zamirleri (relative pronouns), sıfat cümleciklerinde NESNE konumundadırlar

Eğer nesne konumunda ise, who ya da whom ilgi zamirleri,sıfat cümleciğinde kullanlıbilir. İlgi zamiri Özne konumunda ise sadece who kullanlılabilir.
İlgi zamirleri, sıfat cümlesi içinde nesne konumunda iken cümleden düşürülebilirler.
5- (a) INCORRECT: The woman who(m) I met her yesterday is a doctor.
(b) INCORRECT: The woman that I met her yesterday is a doctor.
(c) INCORRECT: The woman  I met her yesterday is a doctor.

Nesne konumundaki şahıs zamirleri, sıfat cümleciklerinde kullanılamazlar. Dolayısıyla 5. örnek yalnıştır.

4- PREPOSITION İLE BİRLİKTE  SIFAT TÜMLEÇLERİ

1. (a) This is the student. I told you about him.
(b) This is the student about whom I told you.
(c) This is the student whom I told you about.
(d) This is the student that I told you about.
(e) This is the student  I told you about.
2. (a) The song was very romantic. We listened to it.
(b) The song to which we listened was very romantic.
(c) The song which we listened to was very romantic.
(d) The song that we listened to was very romantic.
(e) The song  we listened to was very romantic.
İlgeçler (prepositions) sıfat cümlesinin başında ya da sıfat cümlesinin fiilinden sonra kullanılırlar. İlgeçlerin fiillerden sonra kullanımı daha çok tercih edilir.

3. örnekte görüldüğü gibi, ilgeçler who ve that ilgi zamirlerinden önce kullanılamazlar.
3. INCORRECT: The song to that we listened was very romantic.
INCORRECT: This is the student about who I told you.

5- WHOSE İLE NİTELEYEN SIFAT TÜMLEÇLERİ

1. (a) The man called the police. His car was stolen.
(b) The man whose car was stolen called the police.

2. (a) The teacher gives hard tests. I am taking his course.
(b) The teacher whose course I am taking gives hard tests.

3. (a) This is the girl. I borrowed her books.
(b) This is the girl whose books I borrowed.
Whose sıfat cümlelerinde iyelik belirtmek için his, her, its ve their iyelik sıfatları yerine kullanılır.
Whose cümleden düşürülemez.

4. (a) This is the car. Its seats are leather.
(b) This is the car whose seats are leather.

5. (a) I have an antique table. Its value is over $ 1000.000.
(b) I have an antique table whose value is over $ 1000.000.

Whose 4. ve 5. örneklerde de görüldüğü gibi cisimler ve hayvanları nitelerken de kullanılır.

6- WHERE İLE NİTELEYEN SIFAT TÜMLEÇLERİ

1. (a) That is the village. I was born there.
(b) That is the village where I was born.
(c) That is the village in which was born.
(d) That is the village which I was born in.
(e) That is the village that I was born in.
(f) That is the village  I was born in.
2. (a) The restaurant is fantastic. We had lunch there.
(b) The restaurant where we had lunch was fantastic.
(c) The restaurant at which we had lunch was fantastic.
(d) The restaurant which we had lunch at was fantastic.
(e) The restaurant that we had lunch at was fantastic.
(f) The restaurant  we had lunch at was fantastic.
Where sıfat cümleciklerinde yer nitelemek için kullanılır.
Where ile başlayan sıfat cümleciklerinde ilgeçler (prepositions) asla kullanılmaz. Eğer where kullanılmamış ise, ilgeçler kullanılmak zorundadır..

İlgeçler that ilgi zamirinin önünde kullanılamazlar.

3. INCORRECT: (a) The restaurant at where we had lunch was fantastic.
INCORRECT: (b) The restaurant at that we had lunch was
fantastic.

7-  WHEN  İLE NİTELEYEN SIFAT TÜMLEÇLERİ

1. (a) 1975 is the year. I was born then.
(b) 1975 is the year when I was born.
(c) 1975 is the year in which I was born.
(d) 1975 is the year that I was born.
(e) 1975 is the year  I was born.
 
2. (a) Tuesday is the day. The holiday will start then.
(b) Tuesday is the day when the holiday will start.
(c) Tuesday is the day on which the holiday will start.
(d) Tuesday is the day that the holiday will start.
(e) Tuesday is the day  the holiday will start.
When sıfat cümleciklerinde zaman nitelemek için kullanılır.

Zaman niteleyen sıfat cümleciklerinde ilgeçlerin kullanımı, diğer sıfat cümlelerinden biraz farklıdır. (1-c) ve (2-c) de olduğu gibi, ilgeçler sadece which ilgi zamiri ile kullanılabilir.; ilgeçler için başka bir yer olasılığı yoktur.
INCORRECT: (a) Tuesday is the day on when the holiday will start.
INCORRECT: (b) Tuesday is the day on that the holiday will start.
INCORRECT: (c) Tuesday is the day which the holiday will start on.
Zaman niteleyen sıfat cümleciklerinda yapılan genel hatalara dikkat ediniz.

 

 
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